Analysis of Covid-19 legislation from a human rights perspective, by Adam Wagner (barrister at Doughty Street Chambers, Visiting Professor in Law at Goldsmiths University of London and special advisor to UK Parliament’s inquiry into Covid-19), in conversation with Professor Dimitrios Giannoulopoulos (Head of the department of Law at Goldsmiths).
Covid-19 deaths are very likely to give rise to significant number of legal claims in courts, in the context of the duty to protect the right to life (under Art 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights). The ensuing litigation will be highly complex: (a) the key question will be whether the government provided wrong or insufficient equipment, despite having an opportunity to provide the right equipment; (b) causation issues will be difficult to tackle, ie did the victim die as a result of having not been provided with the right PPE?; (c) courts are likely to take into account the global shortage in PPE, and generally tend to shy away from what may be considered pure political decision making; (d) whether failures could be seen as systematic would be key (in line with ECHR case law).
On the Covid-19 lockdown legislation in the UK: Differences in the content of legislation, official guidelines and government guidance to the public have caused confusion and unpredictability as to police enforcement, e.g. regarding restrictions on the amount of times you can go out to exercise: there is no such restriction in the law in England, Scotland and NI, for instance, though government guidance is to go out only once, which is also what the law in Wales provides. The question whether the police response to the Covid-19 legislation is good or not is an open one too. There were signs of police adopting a heavy-handed approach early on. For example, the Derbyshire Police engaged drones to monitor the lockdown in the Peak District, followed by “lockdown shaming”. The police should have adopted a public-health centred approach instead, ie focus on stopping mass gatherings only (the obvious big threat here), not worrying about “people going out to buy an Easter egg” or “having a picnic in the middle of nowhere” for instance. The powers that police were afforded should be used as a last resort.
A level students reflect on government attitudes towards liberty and the rule of law
Dimitrios Giannoulopoulos, from Goldsmiths University of London,
Faculty of Law, gave a lecture to Collyers’ students on the operation
and significance of human rights against the socio-political backdrop of
continuing Euroscepticism and Brexit.
Weymouth, Head of Law at Collyers, who organised the event, was
extremely pleased with its success: “The lecture theatre was full to
maximum capacity of students from all disciplines. The event truly
demonstrated the enthusiasm of the younger generation engaging in
contemporary political/legal issues.”
Law student Jacob Tasker commented: “The Human Rights lecture was
incredibly interesting and highly informative. In addition to the
content being an excellent supplement to our A-Level Law course, it
encouraged the audience to consider the significance of the European
Convention on Human Rights, now more than 50 years old, within a modern
society. In particular, the importance of democracy, rule of law,
individual liberty, and respect and tolerance within a pluralistic
Deputy Principal Steve Martell
was delighted: “Huge thanks to Dimitrios Giannoulopoulos for today’s
inspiring and informative lecture. We are also incredibly grateful to
Janene Weymouth for co-ordinating this wonderful learning opportunity
for our students.”
How is illegally obtained evidence a challenge for human rights?
Inaugurating Goldsmiths Law’s “European encounters”: The Council of Europe and Artificial Intelligence
Goldsmiths Law is delighted to launch a programme of “European encounters”,
intended to bring our students, academics and the wider public in the
UK in contact with European institutions, to shed light on the work they
are doing in key areas of activity influencing our day-to-day lives;
justice, security, the environment, commerce, financial services, the
rule of law, technology, international human rights.
In this first session in the series, on Tuesday, March 5, 09.30 to 11.30, we have the pleasure of welcoming to the College the Council of Europe’sCharlotte Altenhöner-Dion, who is the Head of the Internet Governance Unit and Secretary
to the Expert Committee on Human Rights Dimensions of Automated Data
Processing and Different Forms of Artificial Intelligence (MSI-AUT). Book your place here.
Charlotte will bring to our attention the Council of Europe’s efforts
to assess both the threats and opportunities of Artificial Intelligence
(AI) for human rights. The Council of Europe’s new website on AI provides a useful illustration of recent initiatives, forthcoming events, and projects planned.
The Council of Europe with its 47 member states is the continent’s
leading human rights organisation and guardian of the rights of some 830
million Europeans. Technological advancement over the last decades has
fundamentally transformed societies by providing new tools for
communication, news consumption, education, entertainment, commercial
transactions and multiple other facets of everyday activities. Operating
on the detection and reinforcement of patterns in large datasets,
information processing technology offers the potential to rationalise
services and deliver enormous efficiency gains in task and systems
performance, which may enhance human flourishing and contribute to
creating optimal conditions for the exercise of human rights.
Increasing numbers of Europeans reap the benefits of AI every day as
unprecedented progress is made in a wide range of fields, including
industrial productivity, health care, transportation and logistics. At
the same time, there is growing concern amongst the public about the
broader implications of the use, and possible abuse, of automated data
processing and mathematical modelling for individuals, for communities,
and for societies. Can computational data analytics replace the
reasoning of a trained judge when applying the law to a specific
context? How does algorithmic decision-making affect the delivery of
essential public services and our recruitment and employment conditions?
Can individuals remain visible as independent agents in societies that
are shaped by optimisation processes? What is the effect on freedom of
expression and the plurality of public communication spaces when
individuals are micro-targeted with messages that are based on
profiling? And finally: how does the increasing reliance on mainly
privately developed and run technology square with the rule of law and
the fundamental principle of democratic societies that all power must be
accountable before the law?
Charlotte Altenhöner-Dion will attempt to provide answers to these
questions, reflecting on Council of Europe work in this area, including
the adoption of the first European text defining the ethical framework for the use of AI in judicial systems; the draft
‘Declaration on the manipulative capabilities of algorithmic processes’
(which is being discussed on February 12) and the high-level conference
in Helsinki on 26 and 27 February 2019 on ‘Governing the Game Changer –
Impacts of AI on Human rights, Democracy and the Rule of law’.
Charlotte Altenhöner-Dion has a law degree from Hamburg University
and an LL.M. in International Law from Georgetown University. She has
been with the Council of Europe for the past ten years, having
previously worked for the OSCE and the UN, including in Central Asia,
the Balkans, and East Africa. Her current professional focus lies on the
human rights impacts of digital transformation, intermediary liability,
and the institutional challenges of governing fast-moving technologies
in a rights-compliant manner, while adhering to the principles of
democracy and the rule of law.
The ”European Encounter” series echoes the Law programme’s intention
to offer its students unique opportunities to engage with UK and
European policy makers, and to explore cutting edge issues such as the
relationship between technology and European human rights. You can read
more about areas of specialisation in the LLB Law programme here
ECHR impact in the UK
On 22nd of January 2019, the Royal Society of Arts hosted our latest
Knowing Our Rights seminar. Experts in human rights discussed the European Convention
on Human Rights’ (ECHR) impact in the UK, from both legal theory and legal
practice perspective. The discussions underlined the substantial increase in
the protection of British citizens’ rights since the Human Rights Acts 1998
(HRA) came into force (in 2000). All along the seminar, experts aimed to provide
keys to understanding the significance of the HRA in citizens’ lives at a time
where the Act is being questioned by the government.
Jonathan Cooper OBE (Doughty Street
Chambers) recalled how weak the protection of British citizens’ rights used to
be before the adoption of the Act. When many fundamental rights, like the right
to privacy, the right to equality or the right to protest, were not formally guaranteed
by common law, minorities and vulnerable citizens did suffer from serious
discriminations and denials (e.g. persecution of homosexuals, denial of LGBT
identity, corporal punishment in schools…). Since the HRA was implemented, the
proportionality test (balance between an individual’s rights and public
interests) has been a key element in human rights’ effective protection.
Nadia O’Mara (Policy and Campaigns Officer, Liberty) explained how Non-Governmental
Organizations (NGOs) like Liberty
challenge the use of indiscriminate surveillance powers by British enforcement
authorities, on the basis of Article 8 of the ECHR (right to respect for private life).
Maya Sikand (Head of the Human Rights team, Garden Court Chambers) went on by evoking
her own experience at court, in order to point out the influence of article 8
(right to respect for family life) on
British case law. She referred to the more extensive approach recently adopted
by courts who take into consideration the defendant’s children’s right to
respect for family life before deciding whether to send their primary carer
(usually their mother) to prison.
After recalling the British government’s reluctance to grant prisoners
the right to vote and the European institutions’ relative tolerance regarding
this issue, Ruvi Ziegler (Associate
Professor in Law, University of Reading) underlined the upcoming issues related
to the right to vote for British citizens living outside the UK or in Northern
Ireland after Brexit.
Liora Lazarus (Associate Professor in Law, Oxford; Fellow, St Anne’s College and Head
of Research at Bonavero Institute of Human Rights) drew attention on the
tension between human rights protection and security policies that has
characterized the last two decades. She condemned the tendency to draw a
distinction between deserving and undeserving right-bearers (terrorists…).
This warning echoed Professor
Dimitrios Giannoulopoulos’ (Law, Goldsmiths University of London) introductory
speech. He had referred to the different theories of human rights: whether they
should be considered as universal values or just as legal products with a ‘use
Then, Adam Wagner (Doughty
Street Chambers, founder of RightsInfo and UK Human Rights Blog) insisted on British
citizens’ lack of knowledge of human rights (as to what rights actually consist
of). A link could seemingly be established between the lack of education on
rights (and misinformation spread by politicians and media) and people’s
scepticism and hostility towards human rights.
That’s why it is necessary to make practical use of Convention rights, as Sanchita Hosali (Director, British Institute of Human Rights) explained.
Once they are aware of their rights, citizens, in their everyday lives, are able
to remind public institutions of their duty to respect those rights.
Concluding the seminar, Sir Geoffrey Nice QC (Visiting
Professor in Law, Goldsmiths University of London) called for public awareness
of what is at stake as to the future of human rights’ protection. He invites us
to ask ourselves: what’s best? Having our rights dealt with by British lawyers,
OR having them guaranteed by lawyers and judges, not only from Britain, but
from all across Europe?
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